Molecular Phylogenetics using Bio.Phylo

Have you ever wondered how life formed from the primordial soup and evolved to the different life forms which can be seen at present? How did different species evolved from their ancestors and what relationships do they have with each other? The answers to these questions can be answered through the study of phylogenetics.

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Multiple Sequence Alignment using Clustal Omega and T-Coffee

Have you wondered how scientists identify regions of similarity in three or more biological sequences? As described in my previous article, Sequence alignment is a method of arranging sequences of DNA, RNA, or protein to identify regions of similarity. In my latest article on bioinformatics, I have discussed about pairwise sequence alignment. Make sure to check them out as well. Multiple sequence alignment is quite similar to pairwise sequence alignment, but it uses three or more sequences instead of only two sequences.

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Porter Stemming Algorithm – Basic Intro

In linguistics (study of language and its structure), a stem is part of a word, that is common to all of its inflected variants.


Above words are inflected variants of CONNECT. Hence, CONNECT is a stem. To this stem we can add different suffixes to form different words.

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Amortized Analysis – A basic introduction

What is Amortized Analysis?

In amortized analysis, we average the time needed to perform a sequence of data structure operations. By this method, we can show that the average cost of an operation is small, even if we have a single operation within the sequence which might be expensive. Amortized analysis guarantees the average performance of each operation in the worst case.

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B Trees – All you need to know about deleting keys

B tree is a self-balancing search tree (the tree adjusts itself so that all the leaves are at the same depth) and contains multiple nodes which keep data in sorted order. Each node has 2 or more children, known as the branching factor and consists of multiple keys.

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